Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2013
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and contain all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the results for the periods presented. Estimates are required for the preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and actual results could differ from these estimates. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents are stated at cost, and include cash and investments with original maturities of three months or less at acquisition and also include amounts due from credit card processors.
Restricted cash consists of cash collateral in respect of certain agreements and is included in prepaid expenses and other assets and other long-term assets in our consolidated balance sheets.
Accounts receivable are shown net of an allowance for doubtful accounts of $1.3 million and $1.4 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Inventories mainly consist of provisions, supplies and fuel and are carried at the lower of cost or market using the first-in, first-out method of accounting.
Advertising costs incurred that result in tangible assets, including brochures, are treated as prepaid expenses and charged to expense as consumed. Advertising costs of $7.6 million and $8.3 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, are included in prepaid expenses and other assets. Expenses related to advertising costs totaled $89.0 million, $83.7 million and $79.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding during each period. Diluted earnings per share incorporates the incremental shares issuable upon conversion of potentially dilutive shares. A reconciliation between basic and diluted earnings per share was as follows (in thousands, except share data):
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Major renewals and improvements that we believe add value to our ships are capitalized as a cost of the ship while costs of repairs and maintenance, including Dry-dock costs, are charged to expense as incurred. During ship construction, certain interest is capitalized as a cost of the ship. Gains or losses on the sale of property and equipment are recorded as a component of operating income (expense) in our consolidated statements of operations.
Depreciation is computed on the straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets and after a 15% reduction for the estimated residual values of ships as follows:
Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the lease term or related asset life.
Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment, based on estimated future cash flows, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Assets are grouped and evaluated at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets. We consider historical performance and future estimated results in our evaluation of potential impairment and then compare the carrying amount of the asset to the estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds estimated expected undiscounted future cash flows, we measure the amount of the impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to its fair value. We estimate fair value based on the best information available making whatever estimates, judgments and projections are considered necessary. The estimation of fair value is generally measured by discounting expected future cash flows at discount rates commensurate with the risk involved.
Goodwill and Tradenames
Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair value of net assets acquired. We review goodwill and our tradenames for impairment annually as of December 31 or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill and our tradenames may not be fully recoverable.
We have concluded that our business has a single reportable segment, with each ship considered to be a component. Each component constitutes a business for which discrete financial information is available and management regularly reviews the operating results and, therefore, each component is considered a reporting unit. Our reporting units have similar economic characteristics, including similar margins and similar products and services; therefore, we aggregate all of the reporting units in assessing goodwill.
The impairment review of goodwill is based on a combined approach using the expected future cash flows of our ships to determine a fair value of our aggregate reporting unit and NCLH’s market value. Our discounted cash flow valuation reflects our projection for growth and profitability, taking into account our assessment of future market conditions and demand, as well as a determination of a cost of capital that incorporates both business and financial risks. We believe that the combined approach is the most representative method to assess fair value as it utilizes expectations of long-term growth as well as current market conditions.
Revenue and Expense Recognition
Deposits received from guests for future voyages are recorded as advance ticket sales and are subsequently recognized as passenger ticket revenue along with onboard and other revenue, and all associated direct costs of a voyage are recognized as cruise operating expenses on a pro rata basis over the period of the voyage.
Revenue and expenses include taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are directly imposed on a revenue-producing transaction between a seller and a customer. The amounts included on a gross basis are $147.6 million, $133.6 million and $129.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
The majority of our transactions are settled in U.S. dollars. We translate assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Gains or losses resulting from transactions denominated in other currencies are recognized in our consolidated statements of operations within other income (expense) and such gains or losses were immaterial for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011.
Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activity
We enter into derivative contracts, primarily forward, swap, option and three-way collar contracts, to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange, interest rates and fuel prices. The criteria used to determine whether a transaction qualifies for hedge accounting treatment includes the correlation between fluctuations in the fair value of the hedged item and the fair value of the related derivative instrument and its effectiveness as a hedge. As the derivative is marked to fair value, we elected an accounting policy to net the fair value of our derivatives when a master netting arrangement exists with our counterparties.
A derivative instrument that hedges a forecasted transaction or the variability of cash flows related to a recognized asset or liability may be designated as a cash flow hedge. Changes in fair value of derivative instruments that are designated as cash flow hedges are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until the underlying hedged transactions are recognized in earnings. To the extent that an instrument is not effective as a hedge, gains and losses are recognized in other income (expense) in our consolidated statements of operations. Realized gains and losses related to our fuel hedges are recognized in fuel expense. For presentation in our statement of cash flows, we have elected to classify the cash flows from our cash flow hedges in the same category as the cash flows from the items being hedged.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
We monitor concentrations of credit risk associated with financial and other institutions with which we conduct significant business. Credit risk, including but not limited to counterparty non-performance under derivative instruments, our revolving credit facility and new ship progress payment guarantees, is not considered significant, as we primarily conduct business with large, well-established financial institutions and insurance companies that we have well-established relationships with and that have credit risks acceptable to us or the credit risk is spread out among a large number of creditors. We do not anticipate non-performance by any of our significant counterparties.
We use a combination of insurance and self-insurance for a number of risks including claims related to crew and guests, hull and machinery, war risk, workers’ compensation, property damage and general liability. Liabilities associated with certain of these risks, including crew and passenger claims, are estimated actuarially based upon known facts, historical trends and a reasonable estimate of future expenses. While we believe these accruals are adequate, the ultimate losses incurred may differ from those recorded.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are calculated in accordance with the liability method. Deferred taxes are recorded using the currently enacted tax rates that apply in the periods that the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred taxes are not discounted.
We provide a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized. With respect to acquired deferred tax assets, future reversals of the valuation allowance will first be applied against goodwill and other intangible assets before recognition of a benefit in our consolidated statements of operations.
We recognize expense for our share-based compensation awards using a fair-value-based method. Share-based compensation expense is recognized over the requisite service period for awards that are based on service period and not contingent upon any future performance. We refer you to Note 8—“Employee Benefits and Share Option Plans.”
We have concluded that our business has a single reportable segment, with each ship considered to be a component. Each component constitutes a business for which discrete financial information is available and management regularly reviews the operating results and, therefore, each component is considered a reporting unit. Our reporting units have similar economic characteristics, including similar margins and similar products and services, therefore, we aggregate all of the reporting units.
Although we sell cruises on an international basis, our passenger ticket revenue is primarily attributed to guests who make reservations in North America. Revenue attributable to North American guests was 82% for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 and 83% for the year ended December 31, 2011. Substantially all of our long–lived assets are located outside of the U.S. and consist primarily of our ships.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef