Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and contain all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the results for the periods presented. Estimates are required for the preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and actual results could differ from these estimates. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Certain amounts in prior periods have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. During the fourth quarter of 2016, we combined liabilities that were previously reflected in accounts payable with accrued liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets to better reflect all accruals in one caption. This change was applied retrospectively. As of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, accrued liabilities increased and accounts payable decreased by $7.2 million and $5.9 million, respectively. This change does not impact net working capital movements, operating cash flows or total current liabilities.
|Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents are stated at cost, and include cash and investments with original maturities of three months or less at acquisition and also include amounts due from credit card processors.
Restricted cash consists of cash collateral in respect of certain agreements and is included in prepaid expenses and other assets and other long-term assets in our consolidated balance sheets.
|Accounts Receivable, Net
Accounts Receivable, Net
Accounts receivable are shown net of an allowance for doubtful accounts of $4.7 million and $3.7 million as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Inventories mainly consist of provisions, supplies and fuel and are carried at the lower of cost or market using the first-in, first-out method of accounting.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred except for those that result in tangible assets, including brochures, which are treated as prepaid expenses and charged to expense as consumed. Advertising costs of $1.3 million and $3.4 million as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, are included in prepaid expenses and other assets. Expenses related to advertising costs totaled $270.5 million, $232.2 million and $122.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
|Earnings Per Share
Earnings Per Share
Basic EPS is computed by dividing net income attributable to Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd. by the basic weighted-average number of shares outstanding during each period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing net income by diluted weighted-average shares outstanding. A reconciliation between basic and diluted EPS was as follows (in thousands, except share and per share data):
For the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 a total of 7.1 million, 2.8 million and 3.2 million shares, respectively, have been excluded from diluted weighted-average shares outstanding because the effect of including them would have been anti-dilutive.
|Property and Equipment, Net
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Major renewals and improvements that we believe add value to our ships are capitalized as a cost of the ship while costs of repairs and maintenance, including Dry-dock costs, are charged to expense as incurred. During ship construction, certain interest is capitalized as a cost of the ship. Gains or losses on the sale of property and equipment are recorded as a component of operating income (expense) in our consolidated statements of operations.
Depreciation is computed on the straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets and after a 15% reduction for the estimated residual values of ships as follows:
Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the lease term or related asset life.
Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment, based on estimated future cash flows, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Assets are grouped and evaluated at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets. We consider historical performance and future estimated results in our evaluation of potential impairment and then compare the carrying amount of the asset to the estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds estimated expected undiscounted future cash flows, we measure the amount of the impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to its fair value. We estimate fair value based on the best information available making whatever estimates, judgments and projections are considered necessary. The estimation of fair value is generally measured by discounting expected future cash flows at discount rates commensurate with the risk involved.
|Goodwill and Tradenames
Goodwill and Tradenames
Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair value of net assets acquired. Goodwill and other indefinite-lived assets, principally tradenames, are reviewed for impairment on an annual basis or earlier if there is an event or change in circumstances that would indicate that the carrying value of these assets could not be fully recovered. We use the Step 0 Test which allows us to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not (i.e., more than 50%) that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. In order to make this evaluation, we consider the following circumstances as well as others:
We also may conduct a quantitative assessment comparing the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. This is called the Step I Test which consists of a combined approach using the expected future cash flows and market multiples to determine the fair value of the reporting units. Our discounted cash flow valuation reflects our projection for growth and profitability, taking into account our assessment of future market conditions and demand, as well as a determination of a cost of capital that incorporates both business and financial risks. We believe that the combined approach is the most representative method to assess fair value as it utilizes expectations of long-term growth as well as current market conditions.
In the third quarter of 2016, based on the performance of the Oceania Cruises reporting unit, we performed an interim goodwill impairment evaluation consisting of a Step I Test. Based on that evaluation, we determined that there was no impairment of goodwill because its fair value exceeded its carrying value. For our annual impairment evaluation, we performed a Step 0 Test for the Norwegian reporting unit and Step I Tests for the Regent Seven Seas and the Oceania Cruises reporting units. Based on those evaluations, we determined that there was no impairment of goodwill because the fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its carrying value. However, if the fair value of any reporting unit declines in future periods, its goodwill may become impaired at that time. As of December 31, 2016, there was $523.0 million, $462.1 million and $403.8 million of goodwill for the Oceania Cruises, Regent Seven Seas and Norwegian reporting units, respectively. As of December 31, 2016, our annual review consisting of the Step 0 and Step I Tests supports the carrying value of these assets.
We have concluded that our business has three reporting units. Each brand, Oceania Cruises, Regent and Norwegian, constitutes a business for which discrete financial information is available and management regularly reviews the operating results and, therefore, each brand is considered an operating segment.
|Revenue and Expense Recognition
Revenue and Expense Recognition
Deposits received from guests for future voyages are recorded as advance ticket sales and are subsequently recognized as passenger ticket revenue along with onboard and other revenue, and all associated direct costs of a voyage are recognized as cruise operating expenses on a pro-rata basis over the period of the voyage. Guest cancellation fees are recognized in passenger ticket revenue in the month of the cancellation. Certain of our product offerings are accounted for under the guidance included within multi-element arrangements and result in an allocation of the fair value between passenger ticket revenue and onboard and other revenue.
Revenue and expenses include port fees and taxes. The amounts included on a gross basis are $286.6 million, $243.8 million and $240.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
|Debt Issuance Costs
Debt Issuance Costs
Debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability are presented in the consolidated balance sheets as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. For line of credit arrangements and for those debt facilities not fully drawn we defer and present debt issuance costs as an asset. These deferred issuance costs are amortized over the life of the loan agreement. The amortization of deferred financing fees is included in depreciation and amortization expense in the consolidated statements of cash flows; however, for purposes of the consolidated statements of operations it is included in interest expense, net.
The majority of our transactions are settled in U.S. dollars. We translate assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Gains or losses resulting from transactions denominated in other currencies are recognized in our consolidated statements of operations within other income (expense), net and such gains were approximately $4.5 million, $11.0 million and $6.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
|Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activity
Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activity
We enter into derivative contracts to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates and fuel prices. The criteria used to determine whether a transaction qualifies for hedge accounting treatment includes the correlation between fluctuations in the fair value of the hedged item and the fair value of the related derivative instrument and its effectiveness as a hedge. As the derivative is marked to fair value, we elected an accounting policy to net the fair value of our derivatives when a master netting arrangement exists with our counterparties.
A derivative instrument that hedges a forecasted transaction or the variability of cash flows related to a recognized asset or liability may be designated as a cash flow hedge. Changes in fair value of derivative instruments that are designated as cash flow hedges are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until the underlying hedged transactions are recognized in earnings. To the extent that an instrument is not effective as a hedge, gains and losses are recognized in other income (expense), net in our consolidated statements of operations. Realized gains and losses related to our effective fuel hedges are recognized in fuel expense. For presentation in our consolidated statements of cash flows, we have elected to classify the cash flows from our cash flow hedges in the same category as the cash flows from the items being hedged.
|Concentrations of Credit Risk
Concentrations of Credit Risk
We monitor concentrations of credit risk associated with financial and other institutions with which we conduct significant business. Credit risk, including but not limited to counterparty non-performance under derivative instruments, our New Revolving Loan Facility and new ship progress payment guarantees, is not considered significant, as we primarily conduct business with large, well-established financial institutions and insurance companies that we have well-established relationships with and that have credit risks acceptable to us or the credit risk is spread out among a large number of creditors. We do not anticipate non-performance by any of our significant counterparties.
We use a combination of insurance and self-insurance for a number of risks including claims related to crew and guests, hull and machinery, war risk, workers’ compensation, property damage, employee healthcare and general liability. Liabilities associated with certain of these risks, including crew and passenger claims, are estimated actuarially based upon known facts, historical trends and a reasonable estimate of future expenses. While we believe these accruals are adequate, the ultimate losses incurred may differ from those recorded.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are calculated in accordance with the liability method. Deferred taxes are recorded using the currently enacted tax rates that apply in the periods that the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred taxes are not discounted.
We provide a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized. With respect to acquired deferred tax assets, future reversals of the valuation allowance will first be applied against goodwill and other intangible assets before recognition of a benefit in our consolidated statements of operations.
We recognize expense for our share-based compensation awards using a fair-value-based method. Share-based compensation expense is recognized over the requisite service period for awards that are based on a service period and not contingent upon any future performance. We refer you to Note 10—“Employee Benefits and Share-Based Compensation.”
We have concluded that our business has a single reportable segment. Each brand, Norwegian, Oceania Cruises and Regent constitutes a business for which discrete financial information is available and management regularly reviews the operating results and, therefore, each brand is considered an operating segment. Our operating segments have similar economic and qualitative characteristics, including similar long-term margins and similar products and services; therefore, we aggregate all of the operating segments into one reportable segment.
Although we sell cruises on an international basis, our passenger ticket revenue is primarily attributed to U.S.-sourced guests who make reservations in the U.S. Revenue attributable to U.S.-sourced guests was 81%, 75% and 73% for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. No other individual country’s revenues exceeded 10% in any of our last three years.
Revenues by destination were as follows (in thousands):
Substantially all of our long–lived assets are located outside of the U.S. and consist primarily of our ships. We have 16 ships with Bahamas registry with a carrying value of $7.1 billion and $7.2 billion as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. We have seven ships with Marshall Island registry with a carrying value of $1.9 billion as of December 31, 2016 and six ships with Marshall Island registry with a carrying value of $1.4 billion as of December 31, 2015. We also have one ship with U.S. registry with a carrying value of $0.3 billion as of December 31, 2016 and 2015.
|Recently Issued Accounting Policies
Recently Issued Accounting Policies
In January 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2017-04 which simplifies the test for goodwill impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Step 2 measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. The guidance is effective for annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. We do not expect to early adopt this guidance.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15 which amends Topic 230 (Statement of Cash Flows) to eliminate discrepancies in reporting certain items in the statement of cash flows. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those annual periods with early adoption permitted. The transition should be made using a retrospective approach. We do not believe that the adoption of this guidance will be material to our consolidated statements of cash flows.
In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-12 which addresses improvements to the guidance on revenue from contracts from customers regarding collectability, noncash consideration, and completed contracts at transition. Additionally, it provides a practical expedient for contract modifications at transition and an accounting policy election related to the presentation of sales taxes and other similar taxes collected from customers. The effective date of this guidance is upon adoption of ASU No. 2014-09 which is presented below. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this guidance to our consolidated financial statements.
In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-11 which is a rescission of Securities and Exchange Commission guidance related to the issuance of ASU No. 2014-09 which is presented below. The effective date of this guidance is upon adoption of ASU No. 2014-09. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this guidance to our consolidated financial statements.
In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-10 which does not change the core principle of the guidance in ASU No. 2014-09 but clarifies two aspects: identifying performance obligations and the licensing implementation guidance, while retaining the related principles for those areas. The effective date of this guidance is upon adoption of ASU No. 2014-09. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this guidance to our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09 to improve multiple aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification on the statement of cash flows. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and interim periods within those annual periods with early adoption permitted. We do not believe that the adoption of this guidance will be material to our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02 which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e. lessees and lessors). The ASU requires lessees to recognize assets and liabilities on the balance sheet for the rights and obligations created by all leases with terms of more than 12 months. The ASU further modifies lessors’ classification criteria for leases and the accounting for sales-type and direct financing leases. The ASU will also require qualitative and quantitative disclosures designed to give financial statement users additional information on the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The ASU is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted. The ASU is to be applied using a modified retrospective approach. We are currently reviewing our existing leases to evaluate the impact of the adoption of this guidance to our consolidated financial statements.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11 to simplify the measurement of inventory for all entities. This applies to all inventory that is measured using either the first-in, first-out or average cost method. The guidance requires an entity to measure inventory at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The guidance must be applied prospectively and will be effective for our interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period. We have evaluated the impact of the adoption of this guidance to our consolidated financial statements and there will not be a material impact to our consolidated financial statements.
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-05 to clarify a customer’s accounting for fees paid in a cloud computing arrangement. The amendments provide guidance to customers about whether a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license or if the arrangement should be accounted for as a service contract. This guidance will impact the accounting of software licenses but will not change a customer’s accounting for service contracts. The guidance will be effective for annual periods, including interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2015. We have adopted this guidance and there has not been an impact to our consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09 which requires entities to recognize revenue through the application of a five-step model, including identification of the contract, identification of the performance obligations, determination of the transaction price, allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligation and recognition of revenue as the entity satisfies the performance obligations. Entities have the option of using either a full retrospective or a modified approach to adopt the guidance. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14 deferring the effective date for one year. We can elect to adopt the provisions of ASU No. 2014-09 for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 including interim periods within that reporting period or we can elect to early adopt the guidance as of the original effective date. We expect to adopt a modified retrospective application for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. We have initiated an assessment of our systems, data and processes related to the implementation of this guidance. This assessment is expected to be completed during 2017. Additionally, we are currently evaluating our performance obligations and believe that our application of the guidance will not result in a material change to our revenue recognition.