|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2021
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]
We are incorporated in Bermuda. Under current Bermuda law, we are not subject to tax on income and capital gains. We have received from the Minister of Finance under The Exempted Undertakings Tax Protection Act 1966, as amended, an assurance that, in the event that Bermuda enacts legislation imposing tax computed on profits, income, any capital asset, gain or appreciation, or any tax in the nature of estate duty or inheritance, then the imposition of any such tax shall not be applicable to us or to any of our operations or shares, debentures or other obligations, until March 31, 2035.
The components of net income before income taxes consist of the following (in thousands):
The components of the provision for income taxes consisted of the following benefit (expense) (in thousands):
Our reconciliation of income tax expense computed by applying our Bermuda statutory rate and reported income tax benefit (expense) was as follows (in thousands):
Deferred tax assets and liabilities were as follows (in thousands):
We have U.S. net operating loss carryforwards of $525.3 million and $352.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, which begin to expire in 2030, a portion of which relate to Prestige discussed further below. We have state net operating loss carryforwards of $12.5 million and $5.4 million for the years ended
December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, which expire between 2028 through 2041. We evaluate our deferred tax assets each period to determine if a valuation allowance is required based on whether it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred tax assets would not be realized. The ultimate realization of these deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of sufficient taxable income during future periods. We conduct our evaluation by considering all available positive and negative evidence. This evaluation considers, among other factors, historical operating results, forecasts of future profitability, the duration of statutory carryforward periods, and the outlooks for the cruise industry and broader economy. Based on the weight of available evidence, we have recorded a valuation allowance in the fourth quarter of 2021 and 2020 of $45.0 million and $39.6 million, respectively, with respect to the U.S. net deferred tax assets in one of our U.S. and several of our foreign subsidiaries.
Included above are deferred tax assets associated with our operations in Norway for which we have provided a full valuation allowance. We have Norway net operating loss carryforwards of $13.2 million and $13.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, which can be carried forward indefinitely.
Included above are deferred tax assets associated with Prestige. We have U.S. net operating loss carryforwards of $155.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, which begin to expire in 2030. Utilization of the Prestige net operating loss carryforwards may be subject to a substantial annual limitation due to ownership change limitations that have occurred previously and/or that could occur in the future, as provided by Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (“Section 382”). Ownership changes may limit the amount of net operating loss carryforwards that can be utilized to offset future taxable income and tax, respectively. In general, an ownership change, as defined by Section 382, results from transactions increasing the ownership of certain shareholders or public groups in the stock of a corporation by more than 50 percentage points over a three-year period. If we have experienced an ownership change, utilization of Prestige’s net operating loss carryforwards would be subject to an annual limitation under Section 382. Any limitation may result in expiration of a portion of the net operating loss carryforwards before utilization. Subsequent ownership changes could further impact the limitation in future years. We implemented certain tax restructuring strategies that created our ability to utilize the net operating loss carryforwards of Prestige, for which we had previously provided a full valuation allowance. During the first quarter of 2019, we completed a Section 382 study that determined the amount of the Prestige net operating loss carryforwards that could be utilized against future taxable income resulting in a tax benefit of $35.7 million in connection with the reversal of substantially all of the Prestige valuation allowance. In the fourth quarter of 2020, the valuation allowance recognized includes $30.0 million on the Prestige U.S. net operating loss carryforwards.
We file income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction, various U.S. state jurisdictions and foreign jurisdictions. We are generally no longer subject to U.S. federal, state and local, or non-U.S. income tax examinations by authorities for years prior to 2018, except for years in which NOLs generated prior to 2018 are utilized.
Due to our international structure as well as the existence of international tax treaties that exempt taxation on certain activities, the repatriation of earnings from our subsidiaries would have no tax impact.
We derive our income from the international operation of ships. We are engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. and receive income from sources within the U.S. Under Section 883, certain foreign corporations are exempt from U. S. federal income or branch profits tax on U.S.-source income derived from or incidental to the international operation of ships. Applicable U.S. treasury regulations provide that a foreign corporation will qualify for the benefits of Section 883 if, in relevant part: (i) the foreign country in which the corporation is organized grants an equivalent exemption for income from the international operation of ships to corporations organized in the U.S., and (ii) the foreign corporation has one or more classes of stock that are “primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market” in the U.S. or another qualifying country. We believe that we qualify for the benefits of Section 883 because we are incorporated in qualifying countries and our ordinary shares are primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in the U.S.