Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


As of December 31, 2023, we had liquidity of approximately $2.3 billion, including cash and cash equivalents of $402.4 million, borrowings available under our $1.2 billion undrawn Revolving Loan Facility and the impact of our $650 million undrawn commitment of Class B Notes and Backstop Notes issuable by NCLC less related fees (see Note 8 – “Long-Term Debt”). We believe that we have sufficient liquidity to fund our obligations and expect to remain in compliance with our financial covenants for at least the next twelve months from the issuance of these financial statements.

Basis of Presentation

Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and contain all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the results for the periods presented. Estimates are required for the preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and actual results could differ from these estimates. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents are stated at cost and include cash and investments with original maturities of three months or less at acquisition.

Short-term Investments

Short-term investments include time deposits with original maturities of greater than three months and up to 12 months, which are stated at cost and present insignificant risk of changes in value.

Accounts Receivable, Net

Accounts receivable are shown net of an allowance for credit losses of $13.2 million and $14.0 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Accounts receivable, net includes $20.1 million and $118.4 million due from credit card processors within 12 months as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.


Inventories mainly consist of provisions, supplies and fuel and are carried at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the first-in, first-out method of accounting.

Advertising Costs

Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Expenses related to advertising costs totaled $512.7 million, $577.8 million and $300.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by the basic weighted-average number of shares outstanding during each period. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by diluted weighted-average shares outstanding.

A reconciliation between basic and diluted earnings per share was as follows (in thousands, except share and per share data):

Year Ended December 31, 







Net income (loss)







Basic weighted-average shares outstanding







Dilutive effect of share awards





Diluted weighted-average shares outstanding







Basic EPS







Diluted EPS







Each exchangeable note (see Note 8 – “Long-Term Debt”) is individually evaluated for its dilutive or anti-dilutive impact on EPS as determined under the if-converted method. During the year ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 the exchangeable notes have been excluded from diluted weighted-average shares outstanding because the effect of including them would have been anti-dilutive. Share awards are evaluated for a dilutive or anti-dilutive impact on EPS using the treasury stock method. For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, a total of 87.6 million, 92.6 million and 102.1 million shares, respectively, have been excluded from diluted weighted-average shares outstanding because the effect of including them would have been anti-dilutive.

Property and Equipment, Net

Property and equipment are recorded at cost. We determine the weighted average useful lives of our ships based primarily on our estimates of the costs and useful lives of the ships’ major component systems on the date of acquisition, such as cabins, main diesels, main electric, superstructure and hull, and their related proportional weighting to the ship as a whole. In 2023, the Company took delivery of Oceania Cruises’ first Allura Class Ship. Based on the design, structure and technological advancements made to this new class of ship and the analysis of its major components, which is generally performed upon the introduction of a new class of ship, we have assigned the Allura Class Ships a weighted-average useful life of 35 years. A residual value of 10% was established based on our long-term estimates of the expected remaining future benefit at the end of the ships’ weighted average useful lives. Ship improvement costs that we believe add value to our ships are capitalized to the ship and depreciated over the shorter of the improvements’ estimated useful lives or the remaining useful life of the ship while costs of repairs and maintenance, including Dry-dock costs, are charged to expense as incurred. During ship construction, certain interest is capitalized as a cost of the ship. Gains or losses on the sale of property and equipment are recorded as a component of operating income (expense) in our consolidated statements of operations. The useful lives of components of new ships and ship improvements are estimated based on the economic lives of the new components. In addition, to determine the useful lives of the major components

of new ships and ship improvements, we consider the historical useful lives of similar assets, manufacturer recommended lives, planned maintenance programs and anticipated changes in technological conditions.

Depreciation is computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, after a 10-15% reduction for the estimated residual values of ships as follows:


Useful Life



30‑35 years

Computer hardware and software


3‑10 years

Other property and equipment


3‑40 years

Leasehold improvements


Shorter of lease term or asset life

Ship improvements


Shorter of asset life or life of the ship

Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment, based on estimated future undiscounted cash flows, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Assets are grouped and evaluated at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets. For ship impairment analyses, the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of other assets and liabilities is each individual ship. We consider historical performance and future estimated results in our evaluation of potential impairment and then compare the carrying amount of the asset to the estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds estimated expected undiscounted future cash flows, we measure the amount of the impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to its estimated fair value. We estimate fair value based on the best information available utilizing estimates, judgments and projections as necessary. Our estimate of fair value is generally measured by discounting expected future cash flows at discount rates commensurate with the associated risk.

Goodwill and Trade Names

Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the estimated fair value of net assets acquired. Goodwill and other indefinite-lived assets, principally trade names, are reviewed for impairment annually or earlier if there is an event or change in circumstances that would indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be fully recoverable. In 2023, we changed our annual evaluation date for impairment from December 31 to October 1. We believe this measurement date, which represents a change in the method of applying an accounting principle, is preferable because it better aligns with the timing of the Company’s financial planning process, which is a key component of the annual impairment tests. The change in the measurement date did not delay, accelerate or prevent an impairment charge. The accounting policy change is not material and will be applied prospectively. We may use a qualitative assessment which allows us to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not (i.e., more than 50%) that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. For trade names we also may provide a qualitative assessment to determine if there is any indication of impairment.

In order to make this evaluation, we consider the following circumstances as well as others:

Changes in general macroeconomic conditions, such as a deterioration in general economic conditions; limitations on accessing capital; fluctuations in foreign exchange rates; or other developments in equity and credit markets;
Changes in industry and market conditions such as a deterioration in the environment in which an entity operates; an increased competitive environment; a decline in market-dependent multiples or metrics (in both absolute terms and relative to peers); a change in the market for an entity’s products or services; or a regulatory or political development;
Changes in cost factors that have a negative effect on earnings and cash flows;
Decline in overall financial performance (for both actual and expected performance);
Entity and reporting unit specific events such as changes in management, key personnel, strategy, or customers; litigation; or a change in the composition or carrying amount of net assets; and
Decline in share price (in both absolute terms and relative to peers).

We also may conduct a quantitative assessment comparing the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. In 2023, this consisted of a discounted future cash flow model to determine the fair value of the reporting unit. Our discounted cash flow valuation reflects our principal assumptions of 1) forecasted future operating results and growth rates, 2) forecasted capital expenditures for fleet growth and ship improvements and 3) a weighted average cost of capital of market participants, adjusted for an optimal capital structure. We believe that the approach was the most representative method to assess fair value as it utilized expectations of long-term growth as well as current market conditions. For the trade names, we may also use a quantitative assessment, which, in 2023, utilized the relief from royalty method and includes the same forecasts and discount rates from the discounted cash flow valuation in the goodwill assessment along with a trade name royalty rate assumption.

We have concluded that our business has three reporting units. Each brand, Oceania Cruises, Regent Seven Seas and Norwegian, constitutes a business for which discrete financial information is available and management regularly reviews the operating results and, therefore, each brand is considered an operating segment.

For our annual impairment evaluation, we performed a quantitative assessment for the Regent Seven Seas reporting unit and of each brand’s trade names. As of October 1, 2023, our annual review supports the carrying value of these assets.

Revenue and Expense Recognition

Deposits on advance ticket sales are deferred when received and are subsequently recognized as revenue ratably during the voyage sailing days as services are rendered over time on the ship. Cancellation fees are recognized in passenger ticket revenue in the month of the cancellation. Goods and services associated with onboard revenue are generally provided at a point in time and revenue is recognized when the performance obligation is satisfied. A receivable is recognized for onboard goods and services rendered when the voyage is not completed before the end of the period. All associated direct costs of a voyage are recognized as incurred in cruise operating expenses.

Disaggregation of Revenue

Revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors in various geographical regions.

Revenues by destination consisted of the following (in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 







North America




























Total revenue







North America includes the U.S., the Caribbean, Canada and Mexico. Europe includes the Baltic region, Canary Islands

and Mediterranean. Asia-Pacific includes Australia, New Zealand and Asia. Other includes all other international


Segment Reporting

We have concluded that our business has a single reportable segment. Each brand, Norwegian, Oceania Cruises and Regent, constitutes a business for which discrete financial information is available and management regularly reviews the brand level operating results, and therefore, each brand is considered an operating segment. Our operating segments have similar economic and qualitative characteristics, including similar long-term margins and similar products and services; therefore, we aggregate all of the operating segments into one reportable segment.

Although we sell cruises on an international basis, our passenger ticket revenue is primarily attributed to U.S.-sourced guests who make reservations through the U.S. Revenue attributable to U.S.-sourced guests was 84%, 85% and 87% for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. No other individual country’s revenues exceeded 10% in any of our last three years.

Substantially all of our long-lived assets are located outside of the U.S. and consist primarily of our ships. We had 21 ships with Bahamas registry with a carrying value of $11.5 billion as of December 31, 2023 and 20 ships with Bahamas registry with a carrying value of $10.6 billion as of December 31, 2022. We had 10 ships with Marshall Islands registry with a carrying value of $3.6 billion as of December 31, 2023 and eight ships with Marshall Islands registry with a carrying value of $2.3 billion as of December 31, 2022. We also had one ship with U.S. registry with a carrying value of $0.3 billion as of December 31, 2023 and 2022.

Debt Issuance Costs

Debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability are presented in the consolidated balance sheets as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. For line of credit arrangements and for those debt facilities not fully drawn we defer and present debt issuance costs as an asset. These deferred issuance costs are amortized over the life of the loan. The amortization of deferred financing fees is included in depreciation and amortization expense in the consolidated statements of cash flows; however, for purposes of the consolidated statements of operations it is included in interest expense, net.

Foreign Currency

The majority of our transactions are settled in U.S. dollars. We remeasure assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. The resulting gains or losses are recognized in our consolidated statements of operations within other income (expense), net. We recognized a loss of $28.7 million, a gain of $55.8 million and a gain of $20.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, related to remeasurement of assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies. Remeasurements of foreign currency related to operating activities are recognized within changes in operating assets and liabilities in the consolidated statement of cash flows.

Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activity

We enter into derivative contracts to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates and fuel prices. The criteria used to determine whether a transaction qualifies for hedge accounting treatment includes critical terms match or regression analysis and high effectiveness is achieved when a statistically valid relationship reflects a high degree of offset and correlation between the derivative and the hedged forecasted transaction. As the derivative is marked to fair value, we elected an accounting policy to net the fair value of our derivatives when a master netting arrangement exists with our counterparties.

A derivative instrument that hedges a forecasted transaction or the variability of cash flows related to a recognized asset or liability may be designated as a cash flow hedge. Changes in fair value of derivative instruments that are designated as cash flow hedges are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until the underlying hedged transactions are recognized in earnings. To the extent that an instrument is not effective as a hedge or is no longer probable of occurring, gains and losses are recognized in other income (expense), net in our consolidated statements of operations. Realized gains and losses related to our effective hedges are recognized in the same line item

as the underlying hedged transactions. For presentation in our consolidated statements of cash flows, we have elected to classify the cash flows from our cash flow hedges in the same category as the cash flows from the items being hedged.

Concentrations of Credit Risk

We monitor concentrations of credit risk associated with financial and other institutions with which we conduct significant business. Credit risk, including but not limited to counterparty non-performance under derivative instruments, our undrawn commitment and new ship progress payment guarantees, is not considered significant, as we primarily conduct business with large, well-established financial institutions and insurance companies that we have well-established relationships with and that have credit risks acceptable to us or the credit risk is spread out among a large number of creditors. We do not anticipate non-performance by any of our significant counterparties.


We use a combination of insurance and self-insurance for a number of risks including claims related to crew and guests, hull and machinery, war risk, workers’ compensation, property damage, employee healthcare and general liability. Liabilities associated with certain of these risks, including crew and passenger claims, are estimated actuarially based upon known facts, historical trends and a reasonable estimate of future expenses. While we believe these accruals are adequate, the ultimate losses incurred may differ from those recorded.

Income Taxes

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are calculated in accordance with the liability method. Deferred taxes are recorded using the currently enacted tax rates that apply in the periods that the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred taxes are not discounted.

We provide a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized. With respect to acquired deferred tax assets, changes within the measurement period that result from new information about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date shall be recognized through a corresponding adjustment to goodwill. Subsequent to the measurement period, all other changes shall be reported as a reduction or increase to income tax expense in our consolidated statements of operations.

Share-Based Compensation

We recognize expense for our share-based compensation awards using a fair-value-based method. Share-based compensation expense is recognized over the requisite service period for awards that are based on a service period and not contingent upon any future performance. We refer you to Note 11 – “Employee Benefits and Share-Based Compensation.”

Recently Issued Accounting Guidance

In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures, which aims to improve reportable segment disclosure requirements, primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses. ASU 2023-07 includes additional disclosures on an interim and annual basis and requires that the disclosures be applied to public entities that have a single reportable segment. These provisions are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023 and interim periods after December 15, 2024. ASU will 2023-07 shall be applied retrospectively unless it is impracticable to do so. We will evaluate the impact of ASU 2023-07 on our notes to the consolidated financial statements.

In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures, which requires improvements to income tax disclosures primarily related to the rate reconciliation and income taxes paid information as well as certain other amendments to improve the effectiveness of income tax disclosures. The amendments in this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024 and

should be applied on a prospective basis. We will evaluate the impact of ASU 2023-09 on our notes to the consolidated financial statements.