Fair Value Measurements and Derivatives
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
|Derivative Instruments And Hedging Activities Disclosure [Abstract]
|Fair Value Measurements and Derivatives
Fair value is defined as the price at which an orderly transaction to sell an asset or to transfer a liability would take place between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions (that is, an exit price at the measurement date from the perspective of a market participant that holds the asset or owes the liability).
Fair Value Hierarchy
The following hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value should maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available:
We are exposed to market risk attributable to changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and fuel prices. We attempt to minimize these risks through a combination of our normal operating and financing activities and through the use of derivatives. We assess whether derivatives used in hedging transactions are “highly effective” in offsetting changes in the cash flow of our hedged forecasted transactions. We use regression analysis for this hedge relationship and high effectiveness is achieved when a statistically valid relationship reflects a high degree of offset and correlation between the fair values of the derivative and the hedged forecasted transaction. Cash flows from the derivatives are classified in the same category as the cash flows from the underlying hedged transaction. The determination of ineffectiveness is based on the amount of dollar offset between the cumulative change in fair value of the derivative and the cumulative change in fair value of the hedged transaction at the end of the reporting period. If it is determined that a derivative is not highly effective as a hedge, or if the hedged forecasted transaction is no longer probable of occurring, then the amount recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) is released to earnings. In addition, the ineffective portion of our highly effective hedges is recognized in earnings immediately and reported in other income (expense), net in our consolidated statements of operations. There are no amounts
excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and there are no credit-risk-related contingent features in our derivative agreements.
We monitor concentrations of credit risk associated with financial and other institutions with which we conduct significant business. Credit risk, including but not limited to counterparty non-performance under derivatives is not considered significant, as we primarily conduct business with large, well-established financial institutions that we have established relationships with and that have credit risks acceptable to us or the credit risk is spread out among a large number of creditors. We do not anticipate non-performance by any of our significant counterparties.
The following table sets forth our derivatives measured at fair value and discloses the balance sheet location (in thousands):
The fair values of swap and forward contracts are determined based on observable inputs and utilize the income valuation approach. These valuation models take into account the contract terms, such as maturity and other inputs, such as foreign exchange rates and curves, fuel types, fuel curves and interest yield curves. The Company determines the value of options and collars utilizing an option pricing model based on inputs that are either readily available in public markets or can be derived from information available in publicly quoted markets. The option pricing model used by the Company is an industry standard model for valuing options and is used by the broker/dealer community. The inputs to this option pricing model are the option strike price, underlying price, risk-free rate of interest, time to expiration, and volatility. The fair value of option contracts considers both the intrinsic value and any remaining time value associated with those derivatives that have not yet settled. The Company also considers counterparty credit risk and its own credit risk in its determination of all estimated fair values. Our derivatives and financial instruments were categorized as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy, and we had no derivatives or financial instruments categorized as Level 1 or Level 3.
Our derivative contracts include rights of offset with our counterparties. We have elected to net certain assets and liabilities within counterparties when the rights of offset exist. We are not required to post cash collateral related to our derivative instruments.
The following table discloses the gross and net amounts recognized within assets and liabilities (in thousands):
As of December 31, 2017, we had fuel swaps maturing through December 31, 2020 which are used to mitigate the financial impact of volatility in fuel prices pertaining to approximately 1.2 million metric tons of our projected fuel purchases.
The effects on the consolidated financial statements of the fuel swaps which were designated as cash flow hedges were as follows (in thousands):
We had fuel swaps that matured which were not designated as cash flow hedges. These fuel swaps were previously designated as cash flow hedges and were dedesignated due to a change in our expected future fuel purchases mix.
The effects on the consolidated financial statements of the fuel swaps which were dedesignated and recognized into earnings were as follows (in thousands):
Foreign Currency Options
We had foreign currency options that matured which consisted of call options with deferred premiums. These options were used to mitigate the financial impact of volatility in foreign currency exchange rates related to our ship construction contracts denominated in euros. If the spot rate at the date the ships were delivered was less than the strike price under these option contracts, we would have paid the deferred premium and would not exercise the foreign currency options.
The effects on the consolidated financial statements of the foreign currency options which were designated as cash flow hedges were as follows (in thousands):
Foreign Currency Forward Contracts
As of December 31, 2017, we had foreign currency forward contracts which are used to mitigate the financial impact of volatility in foreign currency exchange rates related to our ship construction contracts denominated in euros. The notional amount of our foreign currency forward contracts was €1.9 billion, or $2.3 billion based on the euro/U.S. dollar exchange rate as of December 31, 2017.
The effects on the consolidated financial statements of the foreign currency forward contracts which were designated as cash flow hedges were as follows (in thousands):
The effects on the consolidated financial statements of the foreign currency forward contracts which were not designated as hedging instruments were as follows (in thousands):
Foreign Currency Collar
We had foreign currency collars that matured and were used to mitigate the volatility of foreign currency exchange rates related to our ship construction contracts denominated in euros.
The effects on the consolidated financial statements of the foreign currency collar which was designated as a cash flow hedge was as follows (in thousands):
The effect on the consolidated financial statements of the foreign currency collar which was not designated as a cash flow hedge was as follows (in thousands):
Interest Rate Swaps
As of December 31, 2017, we had interest rate swap agreements to hedge our exposure to interest rate movements and to manage our interest expense. The notional amount of outstanding debt associated with the interest rate swap agreements was $218.6 million as of December 31, 2017.
The effects on the consolidated financial statements of the interest rate swaps which were designated as cash flow hedges were as follows (in thousands):
The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets of all other financial assets and liabilities approximate fair value.
As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the fair value of our long-term debt, including the current portion, was $6,448.6 million and $6,525.7 million, respectively, which was $23.5 million higher and $11.6 million higher, respectively, than the carrying values. The difference between the fair value and carrying value of our long-term debt is due to our fixed and variable rate debt obligations carrying interest rates that are above or below market rates at the measurement dates. The fair value of our long-term debt was calculated based on estimated rates for the same or similar instruments with similar terms and remaining maturities resulting in Level 2 inputs in the fair value hierarchy. Market risk associated with our long-term variable rate debt is the potential increase in interest expense from an increase in interest rates. The calculation of the fair value of our long-term debt is considered a Level 2 input.
Non-recurring Measurements of Non-financial Assets
Goodwill and other indefinite-lived assets, principally tradenames, are reviewed for impairment on an annual basis or earlier if there is an event or change in circumstances that would indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be fully recoverable.
We believe our estimates and judgments with respect to our long-lived assets, principally ships, and goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets are reasonable. Nonetheless, if there was a material change in assumptions used in the determination of such fair values or if there is a material change in the conditions or circumstances that influence such assets, we could be required to record an impairment charge. We estimate fair value based on the best information available utilizing estimates, judgments and projections as necessary. As of December 31, 2017, our annual review supports the carrying value of these assets.