Revenue and Expense from Contracts with Customers
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]|
|Revenue and Expense from Contracts with Customers||
Nature of Goods and Services
We offer our guests a multitude of cruise fare options when booking a cruise. Our cruise ticket prices generally include cruise fare and a wide variety of onboard activities and amenities, meals, entertainment and port fees and taxes. In some instances, cruise ticket prices include round-trip airfare to and from the port of embarkation, complimentary beverages, unlimited shore excursions, free internet, pre-cruise hotel packages, and on some of the exotic itineraries, pre- or post-land packages. Prices vary depending on the particular cruise itinerary, stateroom category selected and the time of year that the voyage takes place. Passenger ticket revenue also includes full ship charters as well as port fees and taxes.
During the voyage, we generate onboard and other revenue for additional products and services which are not included in the cruise fare, including casino operations, certain food and beverage, gift shop purchases, spa services, Wi-Fi services and other similar items. Food and beverage, casino operations and shore excursions are generally managed directly by us while retail shops, spa services, art auctions and internet services may be managed through contracts with third-party concessionaires. These contracts generally entitle us to a percentage of the gross sales derived from these concessions, which is recognized on a net basis. While some onboard goods and services may be prepaid prior to the voyage, we utilize point-of-sale systems for discrete purchases made onboard. Certain of our product offerings are bundled and we allocate the value of the bundled goods and services between passenger ticket revenue and onboard and other revenue based upon the relative standalone selling prices of those goods and services.
Timing of Satisfaction of Performance Obligations and Significant Payment Terms
The payment terms and cancellation policies vary by brand, stateroom category, length of voyage, and country of purchase. A deposit for a future booking is required at or soon after the time of booking. Final payment is generally due between 120 days and 180 days before the voyage. Deposits on advance ticket sales are deferred when received and include amounts that are refundable. Deferred amounts are subsequently recognized as revenue ratably during the voyage sailing days as services are rendered over time on the ship. Deposits are generally cancellable and refundable prior to sailing, but may be subject to penalties, depending on the timing of cancellation. Historically, the inception of substantive cancellation penalties generally coincided with the dates that final payment is due, and penalties generally increased as the voyage sail date approaches. We have launched cancellation policies for certain sailings booked during
certain time periods to permit certain guests to cancel cruises which were not part of a temporary suspension of voyages up to 15 days prior to embarkation for cruises embarking prior to December 31, 2022 or in the event of a positive COVID-19 test and receive a refund in the form of a credit to be applied toward a future cruise. Cancellation fees are recognized in passenger ticket revenue in the month of the cancellation.
Goods and services associated with onboard revenue are generally provided at a point in time and revenue is recognized when the performance obligation is satisfied. Onboard goods and services rendered may be paid at disembarkation. A receivable is recognized for onboard goods and services rendered when the voyage is not completed before the end of the period.
Cruises that are reserved under full ship charter agreements are subject to the payment terms of the specific agreement and may be either cancelable or non-cancelable. Deposits received on charter voyages are deferred when received and included in advance ticket sales. Deferred amounts are subsequently recognized as revenue ratably over the voyage sailing dates.
Receivables from customers are included within accounts receivable, net. As of December 31, 2022, our receivables from customers were $94.2 million, primarily related to in-transit credit card receivables.
Contract liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to transfer goods and services to a customer. A customer deposit held for a future cruise is generally considered a contract liability only when final payment is both due and paid by the customer and is usually recognized in earnings within 180 days of becoming a contract. Other deposits held and included within advance ticket sales or other long-term liabilities are not considered contract liabilities as they are largely cancelable and refundable. Our contract liabilities are included within advance ticket sales. Future cruise credits that have been issued as face value reimbursement for cancelled bookings due to COVID-19 are generally valid for any sailing through June 30, 2023, and we may further extend this offer. The future cruise credits are not contracts, and therefore, guests who elected this option are excluded from our contract liability balance; however, the credit for the original amount paid is included in advance ticket sales.
As of December 31, 2022, our contract liabilities were $1.7 billion. Of the amounts included within contract liabilities as of December 31, 2022, approximately 40% were refundable in accordance with our cancellation policies. Of the deposits included within advance ticket sales, the majority are refundable in accordance with our cancellation policies and it is uncertain to what extent guests may request refunds. Refunds payable to guests are included in accounts payable. As of December 31, 2021, our contract liabilities were $161.8 million. Approximately $124.4 million of the December 31, 2021 contract liability balance has been recognized in revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. The revenue recognized in the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 that was included in contract liabilities as of the beginning of each respective period was $2.2 million and $0.9 billion, respectively.
Our cruise voyages were completely suspended from March 2020 until July 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and our resumption of cruise voyages was phased in gradually as described under “—Liquidity and Management’s Plan” above. As a result of our return to service as well as our cancellation policies returning to our standard terms, there has been an increase in the contract liability balance as of December 31, 2022. The addition of new ships also increases the contract liability balances prior to a new ship’s delivery as staterooms are made available for reservation prior to the inaugural cruise. In 2023, three new ships are expected to be delivered.
Practical Expedients and Exemptions
We do not disclose information about remaining performance obligations that have original expected durations of one year or less. We recognize revenue in an amount that corresponds directly with the value to the customer of our performance completed to date. Variable consideration, which will be determined based on a future rate and passenger count, is excluded from the disclosure and these amounts are not material. These variable non-disclosed contractual amounts relate to non-cancelable charter agreements and a service concession arrangement with a certain port, both of
which are long-term in nature. Amounts that are fixed in nature due to the application of minimum guarantees are also not material and are not disclosed.
Management generally expects that incremental commissions and credit card fees paid as a result of obtaining ticket contracts are recoverable; therefore, we recognize these amounts as assets when they are paid prior to the voyage. Costs of air tickets, port taxes and other fees that fulfill future performance obligations are also considered recoverable and are recorded as assets. Costs incurred to obtain customers were $184.0 million and $97.8 million as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Costs to fulfill contracts with customers were $125.9 million and $17.4 million as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Both costs to obtain and fulfill contracts with customers are recognized within prepaid expenses and other assets. Incremental commissions, credit card fees, air ticket costs, and port taxes and fees are recognized ratably over the voyage sailing dates, concurrent with associated revenue, and are primarily in commissions, transportation and other expense.
For cruise vacations that had been cancelled by us due to COVID-19, approximately $0.3 million, $36.3 million and $171.5 million in costs to obtain these contracts, consisting of protected commissions, including those paid to employees, and credit card fees, were recognized in earnings during the year ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
The entire disclosure of revenue from contract with customer to transfer good or service and to transfer nonfinancial asset. Includes, but is not limited to, disaggregation of revenue, credit loss recognized from contract with customer, judgment and change in judgment related to contract with customer, and asset recognized from cost incurred to obtain or fulfill contract with customer. Excludes insurance and lease contracts.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef