Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and contain all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the results for the periods presented. Estimates are required for the preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and actual results could differ from these estimates. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Certain amounts in prior periods have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation.
In August 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, to eliminate discrepancies in presenting and classifying certain cash receipts and payments in the statement of cash flows. Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the update using a retrospective transition method, which required an adjustment to cash flows from operating activities and financing activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. Cash payments for debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs, including third-party costs, other fees paid to lenders and premiums paid that are directly related to debt prepayment or debt extinguishment, excluding accrued interest, are required to be classified as cash outflows from financing activities.
The effects of the change on our consolidated statements of cash flows were as follows (in thousands):
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents are stated at cost and include cash and investments with original maturities of three months or less at acquisition and also include amounts due from credit card processors.
Accounts Receivable, Net
Accounts receivable are shown net of an allowance for doubtful accounts of $9.6 million and $5.9 million as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Inventories mainly consist of provisions, supplies and fuel and are carried at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the first-in, first-out method of accounting.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred except for those that result in tangible assets, including brochures, which are treated as prepaid expenses and charged to expense as consumed. Advertising costs of $0.8 million and $2.4 million as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, are included in prepaid expenses and other assets. Expenses related to advertising costs totaled $327.3 million, $289.1 million and $270.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by the basic weighted-average number of shares outstanding during each period. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by diluted weighted-average shares outstanding.
A reconciliation between basic and diluted earnings per share was as follows (in thousands, except share and per share data):
For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, a total of 4.7 million, 5.6 million and 7.1 million shares, respectively, have been excluded from diluted weighted-average shares outstanding because the effect of including them would have been anti-dilutive.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Major renewals and improvements that we believe add value to our ships are capitalized as a cost of the ship while costs of repairs and maintenance, including Dry-dock costs, are charged to expense as incurred. During ship construction, certain interest is capitalized as a cost of the ship. Gains or losses on the sale of property and equipment are recorded as a component of operating income (expense) in our consolidated statements of operations.
Depreciation is computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, after a 15% reduction for the estimated residual values of ships as follows:
Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment, based on estimated future undiscounted cash flows, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Assets are grouped and evaluated at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets. We consider historical performance and future estimated results in our evaluation of potential impairment and then compare the carrying amount of the asset to the estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds estimated expected undiscounted future cash flows, we measure the amount of the impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to its fair value. We estimate fair value based on the best information available utilizing estimates, judgments and projections as necessary. Our estimate of fair value is generally measured by discounting expected future cash flows at discount rates commensurate with the associated risk.
Goodwill and Tradenames
Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair value of net assets acquired. Goodwill and other indefinite-lived assets, principally tradenames, are reviewed for impairment on an annual basis or earlier if there is an event or change in circumstances that would indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be fully recoverable. We use the Step 0 Test which allows us to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not (i.e., more than 50%) that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. For tradenames we also provide a qualitative assessment to determine if there is any indication of impairment.
In order to make this evaluation, we consider the following circumstances as well as others:
We have concluded that our business has three reporting units. Each brand, Norwegian, Regent and Oceania Cruises, constitutes a business for which discrete financial information is available and management regularly reviews the operating results and, therefore, each brand is considered an operating segment.
For our annual impairment evaluation, we performed a Step 0 Test for the Norwegian, Regent Seven Seas and Oceania Cruises reporting units. As of December 31, 2018, there was $523.0 million, $462.1 million and $403.8 million of goodwill for the Oceania Cruises, Regent Seven Seas and Norwegian reporting units, respectively. As of December 31, 2018, our annual review consisting of the Step 0 Test supports the carrying value of these assets.
Revenue and Expense Recognition
Deposits on advance ticket sales are deferred when received and are subsequently recognized as revenue ratably during the voyage sailing days as services are rendered over time on the ship. Cancellation fees are recognized in passenger ticket revenue in the month of the cancellation. Goods and services associated with onboard revenue are generally provided at a point in time and revenue is recognized when the performance obligation is satisfied. A receivable is recognized for onboard goods and services rendered when the voyage is not completed before the end of the period. All associated direct costs of a voyage are recognized as incurred in cruise operating expenses.
Disaggregation of Revenue
Revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors in various geographical regions.
Revenues by destination consisted of the following (in thousands):
We have concluded that our business has a single reportable segment. Each brand, Norwegian, Oceania Cruises and Regent, constitutes a business for which discrete financial information is available and management regularly reviews the brand level operating results and, therefore, each brand is considered an operating segment. Our operating segments have similar economic and qualitative characteristics, including similar long-term margins and similar products and services; therefore, we aggregate all of the operating segments into one reportable segment.
Although we sell cruises on an international basis, our passenger ticket revenue is primarily attributed to U.S.-sourced guests who make reservations in the U.S. Revenue attributable to U.S.-sourced guests was 77%, 77% and 81% for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. No other individual country’s revenues exceeded 10% in any of our last three years.
Substantially all of our long-lived assets are located outside of the U.S. and consist primarily of our ships. We had 18 ships with Bahamas registry with a carrying value of $9.1 billion as of December 31, 2018 and 17 ships with Bahamas registry with a carrying value of $8.0 billion as of December 31, 2017. We had seven ships with Marshall Island registry with a carrying value of $1.9 billion as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. We also had one ship with U.S. registry with a carrying value of $0.3 billion as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Debt Issuance Costs
Debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability are presented in the consolidated balance sheets as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. For line of credit arrangements and for those debt facilities not fully drawn we defer and present debt issuance costs as an asset. These deferred issuance costs are amortized over the life of the loan agreement. The amortization of deferred financing fees is included in depreciation and amortization expense in the consolidated statements of cash flows; however, for purposes of the consolidated statements of operations it is included in interest expense, net.
The majority of our transactions are settled in U.S. dollars. Gains or losses resulting from transactions denominated in other currencies are recognized in income at each balance sheet date. We recognized (gains) losses of $(19.8) million, $14.2 million and $(4.5) million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activity
We enter into derivative contracts to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates and fuel prices. The criteria used to determine whether a transaction qualifies for hedge accounting treatment includes the correlation between fluctuations in the fair value of the hedged item and the fair value of the related derivative instrument and its effectiveness as a hedge. As the derivative is marked to fair value, we elected an accounting policy to net the fair value of our derivatives when a master netting arrangement exists with our counterparties.
A derivative instrument that hedges a forecasted transaction or the variability of cash flows related to a recognized asset or liability may be designated as a cash flow hedge. Changes in fair value of derivative instruments that are designated as cash flow hedges are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until the underlying hedged transactions are recognized in earnings. To the extent that an instrument is not effective as a hedge, gains and losses are recognized in other income (expense), net in our consolidated statements of operations. Realized gains and losses related to our effective fuel hedges are recognized in fuel expense. For presentation in our consolidated statements of cash flows, we have elected to classify the cash flows from our cash flow hedges in the same category as the cash flows from the items being hedged.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
We monitor concentrations of credit risk associated with financial and other institutions with which we conduct significant business. Credit risk, including but not limited to counterparty non-performance under derivative instruments, our Revolving Loan Facility and new ship progress payment guarantees, is not considered significant, as we primarily conduct business with large, well-established financial institutions and insurance companies that we have well-established relationships with and that have credit risks acceptable to us or the credit risk is spread out among a large number of creditors. We do not anticipate non-performance by any of our significant counterparties.
We use a combination of insurance and self-insurance for a number of risks including claims related to crew and guests, hull and machinery, war risk, workers’ compensation, property damage, employee healthcare and general liability. Liabilities associated with certain of these risks, including crew and passenger claims, are estimated actuarially based upon known facts, historical trends and a reasonable estimate of future expenses. While we believe these accruals are adequate, the ultimate losses incurred may differ from those recorded.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are calculated in accordance with the liability method. Deferred taxes are recorded using the currently enacted tax rates that apply in the periods that the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred taxes are not discounted.
We provide a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized. With respect to acquired deferred tax assets, changes within the measurement period that result from new information about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date shall be recognized through a corresponding adjustment to goodwill. Subsequent to the measurement period, all other changes shall be reported as a reduction or increase to income tax expense in our consolidated statements of operations.
We recognize expense for our share-based compensation awards using a fair-value-based method. Share-based compensation expense is recognized over the requisite service period for awards that are based on a service period and not contingent upon any future performance. We refer you to Note 10— “Employee Benefits and Share-Based Compensation.”
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Guidance
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract (a consensus of the FAS Emerging Issues Task Force), which is designed to align the accounting for costs of implementing a cloud computing service arrangement, regardless of whether the hosting arrangement conveys a license to the hosted software. The update requires that for hosting arrangements considered to be a service contract, the criteria for capitalization of developing or obtaining internal-use software shall be applied. The update is effective for annual periods, including interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted, including adoption in any interim period. A prospective or retrospective transition approach must be elected. The Company is evaluating the impact of this guidance on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815) — Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, which simplifies the accounting for derivatives. For derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges, the gain or loss on the derivative instrument is reported as a component of other comprehensive income (loss), reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings and presented in the same income statement line item as the earnings effect of the hedged item. The Company recorded a cumulative effect adjustment to accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) with a corresponding adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings related to the elimination of the separate measurement of ineffectiveness for its cash flow hedges, upon adoption. The adjustments were not material to the Company’s consolidated financial statements. We refer you to Note 9— “Fair Value Measurements and Derivatives” in these notes to consolidated financial statements.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740) — Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory, which requires companies to recognize the income-tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs, rather than when the asset has been sold to an outside party. The Company recorded, upon adoption, a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings of $19.1 million, which captures the write-off of previously unamortized deferred income tax expense from past intra-entity transfers involving assets other than inventory not previously recognized under accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S.
In December 2017, the Act was enacted, and among other provisions, reduced the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%. Also in December 2017, the SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) No. 118, which addresses the recognition of provisional amounts when a company does not have the necessary information available, prepared or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete its accounting for the effect of the changes by the Act. The measurement period ends when a company has obtained, prepared and analyzed the information necessary to finalize its accounting, but cannot extend beyond one year. The Company completed the accounting for the tax effects of enactment of the Act. There was no material change to the $7.4 million reduction of the value of net deferred tax liabilities (which represent future tax expenses) recorded in 2017 as a discrete tax benefit resulting from the lower U.S. federal corporate income tax rate under the Act. Other aspects of the Act were either not applicable or did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350) — Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which simplifies the test for goodwill impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Step 2 measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. The guidance is effective for annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company does not expect to early adopt this guidance. The Company will evaluate, upon adoption of this guidance, the impact of this guidance on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases. The update was issued to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing rights and obligations resulting from leases as lease assets and liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements for leases with a term of 12 months or more. The update modifies lessors’ classification criteria for leases and the accounting for sales-type and direct financing leases. The update requires qualitative and quantitative disclosures designed to give financial statement users additional information on the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The update is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company has engaged a third party to assist in reviewing the Company’s existing leases and evaluating the Company’s existing contracts to identify those that are considered to be leases under the new guidance. The Company will elect to combine lease and non-lease components as a lessee, to keep leases with an initial term of 12 months or less off the balance sheet, and, if any non-lease component associated with the lease component is the predominant component, the Company will account for the combined component in accordance with FASB ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) (“Topic 606”), as the lessor. The update is to be applied retrospectively with a cumulative-effect adjustment on January 1, 2019. The Company continues to evaluate the effect that the update will have on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The Company expects the update to have a material effect on the Company’s assets and liabilities, which will result in a balance sheet presentation that is not comparable to the prior period in the first year of adoption. The Company does not expect the update to have a material impact on the Company’s annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef